Chios Mastic’ activity against Helicobacter Pylori
Chios mastic is a white, translucent, natural resin that is produced as a secretion of the trunk from the mastic trees. Its scientific name is Pistacia lentiscus of the family Anacardiaceae. It grows almost exclusively in the southern area of Chios in Greece and has been used in traditional Greek medicine for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including indigestion or peptic ulcer for more than 2500 years. The biological activities of Chios mastic are attributed to the composition and variety of chemical compounds and resin essential oil. It contains natural antimicrobial agents widely used in medicine as well as beneficial antioxidant and hepato-protective properties.
Chios Mastic has antibacterial activity; in vivo anti-platelet activity in the oral cavity has been attributed to its inhibitory action against bacterial growth specifically against Streptococcus. Clinical studies have initially shown that Chios Mastic is effective against gastric and duodenal ulcer disease; in vitro studies proved to be bactericidal against Helicobacter pylori by killing 50% of the tested strains at 125 mg / ml and 90% of the strains at a concentration of 500 mg/ml. Degradation of Helicobacter was also observed in a test of infected mice yielding this inhibition isomasticadienolic acid. In contrast, another study showed a resistance after Chios mastic uptake of Helicobacter in infected mice and humans and recently, in-vitro growth of Helicobacter was inhibited by Mastic extraction of at least 1,4 g of gum.
This study was published in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and consists of two parts. The first was designed to evaluate the in-vitro influence of arabinogalactan AGPs and Chios mastic in the activation of neutrophils into five positive patients with Helicobacter pylori and the second part was designed to evaluate the in-vivo effect of mastic consumption in neutrophil activation in all participants.
The Chios Mastic was shown to inhibit induced HP-NAP activate neutrophils involved in the pathogenesis associated with Helicobacter pylori in pathological situations include peptic ulcer disease. Noteworthy is that the agents of the infectivity of Helicobacter action promote the release of various chemoattractants / inflammatory mediators including primarily neutrophil attractant. Specifically, Helicobacter pylori causes vigorous leukocyte infiltration of the gastric mucosa and neutrophil activation and provides an important source of active oxygen radicals, which can cause tissue damage particularly in the absence of antioxidants.
Adhesion molecules are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and leukocytes help to ensure a smooth cell interactions sequence to the cell and the adhesion of leukocytes is maintained in the vascular endothelium and subsequent migration of the inflammatory tissue. Transcription factors are involved in endothelial expression in adhesion molecules, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Long-term gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori predisposes the development of stomach cancer as well as the oxidative oxygen radicals that play a role in carcinogenesis.
Chios mastic can alter the pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract induced by Helicobacter pylori by inhibiting the activation of neutrophils.
Kottakis F, Befani C, Asiminas A, Kontou M, Koliakos G, Choli-Papadopoulou T. The C-terminal region of HPNAP activates neutrophils and promotes their adhesion to endothelial cells. Helicobacter 2009;14:177-179.
: L-Glutamine & Chios Mastiha